If you’re interested in a career in exercise science and kinesiology, an associate’s degree could be the perfect place to start. With the best exercise science associate’s programs you’ll gain the skills for entry-level careers in the field and the foundation to continue your studies at the bachelor’s and master’s level for more advanced careers in areas such as physical therapy. Primarily, Kinesiology is the study of movement, function, and performance. Exercise Science concentrates on the body’s response to movement, function, and performance. Students in this field will study anatomy and physiology, biomechanics, and biochemistry.
Best Health Degrees has looked at several Associate degree programs to help you choose a school that suits your ambitions. The school information is synthesized to give you a sense of the program in terms of courses, length of the program, admission requirements, cost, etc. These schools accept transfer students, however, these descriptions are the requirements for first-time students.
The programs are all accredited and accept federal student assistance. Be certain to apply for aid by completing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA®. (NOTE: You may want to check if your state provides free, or reduced, community college tuition.)
Our Method: Ranking the 25 Best Exercise Science and Kinesiology Associate’s Degrees
To rank the 25 Best Exercise Science and Kinesiology Associate’s Degrees, Best Degrees editors researched accredited, trusted programs of all kinds. From our initial pool, we ranked programs according to price, accreditation, reputation, and salary potential, using data from IPEDS and Niche, U.S. News and World Report, and other higher education rating publications.
1. Utah Valley University
Located in Orem, Utah, the Utah Valley University offers both A.S. or A.A. Exercise Science degrees, each of which, requires 60 credit hours.
The program will prepare you to go on to complete a bachelor’s degree or an entry level position in the fitness profession. This curriculum includes studies in general education courses such as English, history, math, physical science, fine arts, and more. The 16 credit hour core curriculum will acquaint you with Elementary Chemistry for the Health Sciences, Human Physiology, Sports Medicine, Human Anatomy, Foundations of Exercise Science, and others.
Admission requires copies of your high school transcripts (or any other academic studies) and an application with a $35 fee. Although not required, the school suggests you submit ACT/SAT scores if you’re wanting to be considered for a merit based scholarship.
Fast Fact: Niche ranks UVU #7/11 Best Value Colleges in Utah
2. University of North Georgia
The A.S. in Exercise Science at this Gainesville, GA campus may be an ideal program for you if your goal is to pursue your bachelor’s degree in preparation to teach health and physical education.
Offered through the university’s College of Education and Kinesiology Department, you’ll complete 60 credit hours for the degree, with 18 hours in the Exercise Science Pathway. The curriculum is comprised of studies in Communication & Quantitative Skills, Humanities/Fine Arts, Natural Sciences, Math, and Technology, etc. Pathway studies are in Human Anatomy and Physiology, Introduction to Kinesiology, and two electives. Georgia requires you also study US and Georgia History, US and Georgia Constitution, and the Regents’ Skills Program.
You’ll submit an admission application along with a $30 application fee. UNG places a high premium on a student’s GPA in making acceptance decisions and the application deadline is February 15.
Fast Fact: This school ranks in the top 50 of U.S. News and World Report’s Best Colleges for Veterans and Top Public Schools, and Best Value Schools
3. College of DuPage
If you live in the Glen Ellyn, IL area, you may want to look at the College of DuPage’s Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport Studies Associate degree program.
Designed to prepare you for a variety of exercise science professions, the 64 credit hour curriculum includes 31 hours in General Education studies in areas such as Math, Communications, Humanities/Fine Arts, Physical and Life Science, and Social and Behavioral Science. Your major studies involve Human Anatomy and Physiology, Science of Nutrition, Applied Kinesiology, Fitness Instructor Training-Personal, Introduction to Physical Education, Living With Health, or First Aid and CPR.
DuPage encourages you to meet with an Admissions Representative (or attend an admissions event), submit an application, make an application for financial aid through the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA®). There are several admission designations at DuPage and you’ll want to choose the one which fits your situation best.
Fast Fact: Niche considers the College of DuPage #141/853 in its Best Community Colleges in America
4. Bergen Community College
This is a Wellness and Exercise Science Associate degree requiring 60 credit hours for completion.
You’ll be able to choose from four options with this program: Sports Management, Exercise, Athletic Training or Health Science. Regardless of your option, you’ll take general education courses in Communication, Humanities, Social Science, and Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Technology. Depending on your career choice, you’ll study Nutrition, Exercise, and Fitness, Sports Medicine – Theory and Practice, Sports Fundamentals, Sports Facilities & Events Management, Anatomy and Physiology, Healthcare Ethics and Law, and more.
While the school’s website isn’t very specific regarding admission requirements, baseline requirements include self-reporting high school graduation, academic transcripts from any school attended, and other documents as requested.
Fast Fact: BCC ranks #407/853 in Niche’s ranking of Best Community Colleges in America
5. Chandler-Gilbert Community College
Calling Chandler, AZ home, the Chandler-Gilbert Community College has an Associate in Arts with an emphasis in Exercise Science.
The curriculum takes 60-64 credit hours for completion. Coursework in includes general education classes in English, math, humanities, communication, sciences, etc. You’ll take major courses in Introduction to Exercise Science, General Biology, Introduction to Exercise Physiology, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Assessment and Program Design (in specific areas such as Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Muscular Fitness, Flexibility and Balance, etc.), This two-year program is a perfect start to a bachelor’s degree in the field.
There are several admission options available, depending on your specific situation. Whether you’re a new student, transfer, veteran, high school, or international student, the admission process begins with an application. The Office of Admissions and Records is available to help walk you through the process.
Fast Fact: This college ranks #4/17 Best Community Colleges in Arizona by Niche
6. Mesa Community College
Here’s an Associate in Applied Science in Exercise Science: Health, Fitness and Sports Performance degree.
Requiring 63-75 credit hours for completion, you can enroll full-time or part-time. Among the classes in the curriculum are Strength Training, Healthful Living, Introduction to Exercise Physiology, Assessment, and Program Design in areas such as flexibility/balance, weight management/motivation, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Additional classes include studies in Instructional Competency in flexibility, muscular strength, etc. You’ll also study nutrition, anatomy and physiology, and evidence-based practice. You’ll also take general education courses.
If you’re a first-time student, you’ll need to have a high school diploma or GED, submit an application, and provide additional documentation as requested. Admission information will detail the forms and documents needed.
Fast Fact: Opened in 1963, Mesa Community College is considered #289/853 in Niche’s Best Community Colleges in America
7. Pierce College
This Washington state college, has an Associate Applied Science Transfer (AAS-T) degree in Kinesiology. The AAS-T may not be familiar to you, but is described by the college as, “…Built upon the technical courses required for job preparation, but also includes a college-level general education component…”
The admission process for new or returning students requires an application and submitting an application for the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA®) Other documents may be requested.
Fast Fact: U.S. News and World Report ranks Pierce College #28 in its Regional Colleges North
8. Allan Hancock College
This Santa Maria, CA college has an A.A. in Kinesiology degree that will prepare you to obtain a baccalaureate degree from a university. A bachelor’s degree will qualify you to teach, work as an exercise physiologist, in physical therapy, or kinesiology.
Beyond the general education courses required, you’ll take classes from a robust curriculum. Topics you’ll choose from include Sport Psychology, Orthopedic Injury Assess/Rehab, Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries, First Aid-CPR: Educator/Coach, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Introduction to Kinesiology, Health and Wellness, and others. The entire program requires 60 credit hours of study
If you’re interested in this program and have a high school diploma or GED certification, you’ll need to submit an admission application along with other documents as needed. An academic transcript from secondary and/or post-secondary schools you’ve attended. If you’re male, you may be asked for your Selective Service Registration as part of the admission process.
Fast Fact: Established in 1920, Allan Hancock College is ranked #105/853 in Best Community Colleges in America by Niche
9. Delaware Technical Community College
If you’re in the Wilmington, DE area and looking for a program in exercise science, you may want to look at the Associate Degree in Exercise Science at DTCC. This program is designed to help you qualify for careers in lifestyle/wellness, personal trainer, EKG technician, and/or corporate health and wellness.
The curriculum is comprised of classes in general education, such as English composition, basic chemistry, math, etc. Courses in your major include Introduction to Exercise Science, Wellness and Health Promotion, First Aid, Safety, and CPR, Anatomy and Physiology, Nutrition, General Psychology, and more. This 71 credit hour program also requires a clinical placement to provide you with real-world experience in (fitness evaluation, prescription, and instruction.) You’ll also learn management skills during your practicum. You’ll qualify for certification exams offered by National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA), American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), American Council on Exercise (ACE), etc.
Steps for admission require a DTCC application, filing for federal financial student aid, and demonstrating your suitability for college by providing academic transcripts with a 3.0 GPA, SAT scores, high school or GED certification, AP math courses, and other benchmarks. You may be asked to provide your Delaware driver’s license or government ID.
Fast Fact: Founded in 1966, DTCC has an 88% graduation rate in Exercise Science
10. Coastal Carolina Community College
You can earn an Associate in Applied Science degree in Health and Fitness Science in 66-69 credit hours.
The curriculum for this degree involves studies in general education subjects (humanities, math, English, etc.). Major classes include Exercise Science, Fitness and Exercise Testing, Exercise Programming, Personal Training, General Psychology, and Physical Fitness. Sports Psychology, Anatomy and Physiology, Nutrition, Group Exercise Instruction, as well as Lifestyle Changes and Wellness are part of the program.
As part of the admission process, you’ll be asked to provide your residency status, complete an admission application, provide academic transcripts, and finally, meet with a member of the counseling staff.
Fast Fact: Located in Jacksonville, NC, CCCC is a satellite school of the University of North Carolina-Wilmington
11. Wake Technical Community College
You can earn the Associate in Applied Science in Health and Fitness Science on the Scott Northern Wake Campus in Raleigh, NC.
Requiring 65-66 credit hours, this Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) accredited degree prepares you to enter the health and fitness industry. Among the classes you’ll take are Exercise Science, Anatomy and Physiology, Aerobics, General Psychology, Fitness and Facility Management, Exercise Programming, Nutrition, and others. The curriculum qualifies you for the ACSM Group Exercise Instructor Certification and/or ACSM Personal Trainer Certification Exams. Internships are also available to put what you’re learning into practice.
Some of the forms needed to apply for admission are a WTCC application, a complete NC Residency Determination Interview, an application for financial aid, and academic transcripts from schools attended.
Fast Fact: WTCC ranks #369/853 in Niche’s Best Community Colleges in America
12. Western Nebraska Community College
Here’s an Associate of Science in Exercise Science offered by WNCC at the Scottsbluff campus.
You can choose one of two options in this curriculum in either physical education or health and fitness studies. Besides the general education classes required, you’ll take 30 credit hours in core requirements. Those core studies include Basic Nutrition, Personal Health, Sports Psychology, Child Growth and Development or Life Span: Human Growth and Development, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Personal Health, and more. The degree requires 60 credit hours for completion and will provide transfer options to earn a baccalaureate degree.
An admission application, academic transcripts, application for federal student aid, and ACT/SAT test scores (or complete the Next Generation ACCUPLACER.
Fast Fact: Niche designates WNCC #371/853 in its Best Community Colleges in America
13. Vol State Community College
Located in Gallatin, TN, Vol State Community College has an A.S. (TTP) in Exercise Science degree you can earn in 60 credit hours. The TTP designation guarantees that all courses you take will transfer to public universities toward a baccalaureate degree.
You’ll take 41 credit hours in general education classwork in the humanities, English, psychology, math, etc. The major requires First Aid and Safety/CPR, Care of Athletic Injuries, Introduction to Exercise Science, and Principles of Nutrition. You’ll be required to take the Educational Testing Service Proficiency Profile (ETSP) to meet graduation requirements. If you plan to attend the University of Tennessee Knoxville or the University of Tennessee Memphis, you’re encouraged to check curriculum requirements for transfer admission.
An admission application is needed, along with submission of proof of citizenship, high school graduation verification (or GED), ACT scores, and you must be over 16 years of age. Male applicants will need to provide Selective Service Registration.
Fast Fact: Vol State Community College is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCC)
14. Barton Community College
This college in Kansas provides an associate’s degree in Exercise Science through the Department of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation.
The curriculum calls for 60 credit hours in general education and major coursework. Although specific elective coursework isn’t provided, you’ll be able to enroll in classes in Introduction to Exercise Science, Basic Nutrition, Care & Prevention of Athletic Injury, and Introduction to Health-PE-Recreation. This is designed to offer the general education coursework and core Exercise Science classes needed to transfer to a four-year university. Be sure the electives you choose will meet the requirements for your school choice.
BCCC admission requirements include an application, ACT or ACCUPLACER scores, academic transcripts, application for federal student aid, and an advising appointment with an admissions counselor. This program is offered on the Barton County campus in Great Bend, KS.
Fast Fact: Niche gives Barton County Community College a ranking of #365/853 in its Best Community Colleges in America
15. Tacoma Community College
This college in Tacoma, WA, has an Associate of Arts (DTA) degree with a concentration in Exercise Science.
On the quarterly system, TCC requires 90 credit hours. Among the courses are topics in nutrition, psychology, chemistry, biology, physical education, etc. You’ll also study topics in the humanities and social sciences, as well as multicultural studies. Once you complete the degree, you’ll be eligible to transfer as a junior to universities in Washington state to earn a bachelor’s degree in Exercise Science.
TCC offers options for admission. All admissions requests begin with an application, after which you’ll receive email instructions on your next steps. You’ll be asked to set up a TCC web account, apply for federal student aid, have a placement review, and attend new student orientation.
Fast Fact: TCC has educated over half a million students since its opening in 1965
16. South Mountain Community College
This college campus in Phoenix, AZ, offers an Associate in Arts degree with an Exercise Science emphasis.
This 60-64 curriculum will allow you to complete two years of credits which will transfer to a four-year university. You’ll take classes in Introduction to Exercise Science, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Principles of Human Nutrition, Instructional Competency in either Flexibility and Mind-Body Exercises, Muscular Strength and Conditioning, or Cardiorespiratory Exercises and Activities. Other studies will include general education requirements in humanities, math, English, communication, behavioral and social sciences, chemistry, etc.
You’ll need to provide copies of academic transcripts and complete an SMCC application for admission. SMCC is one of ten Maricopa County Colleges serving students in Arizona.
Fast Fact: SMCC is rated #293/853 in the Best Community Colleges in America rankings by Niche
17. Mercer County Community College
This West Windsor, NJ college provides an AS in Exercise Science that takes four semesters for the 60 credit hours needed for this degree.
Your studies will include classes in Introduction to Psychology, Anatomy and Physiology, Introduction to Exercise Science, Medical Terminology, Living with Health, Kinesiology, Basic Concepts in Nutrition, Applied Exercise Physiology, as well as an Exercise Science Field Experience. General education and elective courses are required. The curriculum is designed to prepare you to take the National Strength and Conditioning Association’s Certified Personal Trainer (NSCA-CPT) exam.
You need a minimum of a high school diploma or GED certification to apply. Other admission criteria includes completion of the online application form, proof of immunizations (full-time students only), and academic transcripts. ACT/SAT scores aren’t required but SAT scores are used for placement. Once everything is submitted, you’ll meet with an advisor to evaluate your interests and background to schedule courses best suited for your goals.
Fast Fact: MCCC is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education (MSCHE)
18. Ivy Tech College
Ivy Tech has multiple campus locations in Indiana. You can earn an AAS in Kinesiology and Exercise Science designed to prepare you for entry-level health and wellness programs.
A 60 credit hour program, the curriculum offers studies in Structural Kinesiology, Sports Facilities Management, Introduction to Exercise Physiology, Fundamentals in Public Speaking, Introduction to Psychology, Health and Aging, Exercise for Special Populations, Wellness Coach, and Applied Biomechanics and Movement Anatomy. The program culminates with a Capstone Project synthesizing what you’ve learned to a real-world situation.
Admission is simple at ITCC, asking for completion of a free admission application. You’ll be asked to provide high school or college transcripts and SAT/ACT/PSAT scores. If you don’t have access to your academic information, you can get help through ITCC’s Assessment procedure.
Fast Fact: ITCC is located in over 40 locations in over 75 Indiana locations
19. Grand Rapids Community College
GRCC has developed Pathway Programs designed to help you with your career goals. As part of that, you can earn an AA with a Health and Exercise Sciences concentration.
You’ll take general education coursework in Statistics, English Composition, General Psychology, Fundamentals of Public Speaking, humanities, etc. Courses in the major include Introduction to Exercise Science, General Nutrition, Medical Terminology, Inorganic, Organic, and Biochemistry, etc. The sequence of the coursework is broken into Priorities, allowing you to determine if the program is meeting your career goals by working with an academic advisor or faculty member.
Application for admission is simple, requiring you have a high school diploma or GED, a copy of your academic transcripts, and ACT/SAT test scores. If you don’t meet the minimum GPA and ACT/SAT score requirements, you’ll need to take a placement test to determine the appropriate degree/certificate program for you.
Fast Fact: Established in 1914, GRCC is Michigan’s first community college
20. Montgomery College
Montgomery College has three Maryland locations in Germantown, Rockville, and Tacoma Park/Silver Spring and has an AA degree in Exercise Science concentration.
This program is accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) and the 60 credit hour curriculum includes general education coursework as well as Exercise Science classes. Over four semesters, you’ll take courses in Principles of Biology, Principles and Practices of Health-Related Fitness, Introduction to Health Behaviors, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Prevention and Management of Exercise Injuries, English, and others.
If you’re interested in this program, you’ll need to submit an application, a high school diploma or GED, and provide academic transcripts for any schools you’ve attended. You need to be at least 16 years old to apply. The ACT/SAT test scores are not required for admission, but would be helpful in course placement.
Fast Fact: Montgomery College is ranked #75/853 Best Community Colleges in America by Niche
21. Keiser University
This private, Florida university has campuses across the state and this AS in Exercise Science program is offered on the Orlando campus.
Using both didactic courses and externships, you can earn this 61 credit hour degree in approximately 17 months. Two Anatomy and Physiology courses are prerequisites to the degree program before taking courses in the major. Among the classes offered are Exercise Physiology, Introduction to Kinesiology, Health Performance and Assessment, General Chemistry, as well as Integrated Fitness Programming. You’ll also take general education courses in behavioral/social sciences, humanities/fine arts, English, math, and more.
You’ll need to provide verification of your high school or GED completion and will start the admission process by meeting with an admissions counselor and visiting the campus or attending an open house. An application will need to be completed and you’ll be asked for academic transcripts of all schools you’ve attended. You’ll also want to file for federal student aid.
Fast Fact: U.S. News and World Report ranks this school #284 in National Universities
22. Nashville State Community College
This AS in Exercise Science program follows guidelines by the Tennessee Transfer Pathway at Nashville State Community College. The Pathway is a statewide initiative to have at least 55% of Tennesseans earn a college degree or certificate. Tennessee Transfer Pathway is designed to assure students who earn an AS or AA have coursework that will transfer to a Tennessee public university.
The curriculum requires 61 credit hours for completion and requires general education classes in communication, social/behavioral sciences, history, fine arts/humanities, math, and natural sciences. The Exercise Science major offers classes in nutrition, Introduction to Exercise Science, Prevention & Care of Athletic Injuries, Physical Education Activity, First Aid & Safety, as well as five hours of elective classes.
It’s simple to apply for admission by submitting an application, be a high school graduate or GED prepared student, supply an official academic transcript, ACT/SAT scores (students over age 21 are exempt from the test score requirement), proof of U.S. citizenship, and immunization certificate.
Fast Fact: Established in 1970, NSCC holds accreditation from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCC)
23. Tyler Junior College
Tyler Junior College is one of the largest community colleges in Texas. This 60 credit hours AAS in Wellness and Exercise Science degree will qualify you for entry-level positions in medical and sports performance clinics or commercial fitness facilities.
Besides the 20 general education hours of coursework, you’ll take 40 credit hours in the Wellness and Exercise Science major. Among those courses, you’ll take Lifestyle Change for Wellness, Prevention and Care of Exercise Injury, Special Topics in Kinesiology and Exercise Science, Exercise Science, Theory of Exercise Program Design and Instruction. Special Topics in Exercise Sciences/Physiology and Movement Studies, and a Health and Physical Education, and a general practicum rounds out the program.
You’ll start your admission request with an application, your official high school transcript or GED scores, and apply for federal student assistance. If you’re under the age of 22, you’ll need to provide Bacterial Meningitis Vaccination information. Unless exempt, you’ll be required to Texas Success Initiative (TSI) to assess your probability for college success.
Fast Fact: TJC opened in 1927 and is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCC)
24. Los Angeles City College
If you’re on the West Coast and want a transfer degree program, you may want to look at this AA in Kinesiology or AS in Kinesiology: Public Health Science. These degrees provide for a simple transfer to any California State University System school to complete a baccalaureate degree.
Among the courses you’ll take for the AA in Kinesiology are Human Anatomy, Introduction to Kinesiology, Human Physiology, as well as movement based studies. The AAS in Kinesiology: Public Health Science courses include Health and Wellness, Introduction to Public Health, Human Anatomy as well as Human Physiology, and more. Both degrees will require you to take general education courses in English, communication, psychology, math, humanities, etc.
You can apply for admission by completing an online application and applying for federal financial assistance. Assessment (for determining appropriate English and math courses), Orientation, and Counseling will also be part of the process.
Fast Fact: LACC was established in 1929 and is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC)
25. Ancilla College
Ancilla College is a Catholic college and has an AS in Exercise Science degree completed in 64 credit hours of general education and exercise science courses.
This curriculum, described in the college catalog, is well balanced and includes studies in Human Anatomy and Physiology, General Psychology, math, history, etc. You’ll study General Chemistry as part of the major, along with Medical Terminology, Introduction to Exercise Science, First Aid and Emergency Procedures, Principles and Practices of Exercise Science, as well as an Exercise Science Internship. This curriculum will qualify you for entry-level exercise science positions or serve as a basis for you to transfer to a four-year university having completed your first and second years.
To be accepted at Ancilla College, you need a minimum of a 2.0 GPA for your high school transcript or GED test. Additional admission requirements will ask for you to complete an application and provide academic transcripts. ACT/SAT test scores are optional.
Fast Fact: Ancilla College, founded in 1937 meets the accreditation standards of the Higher Learning Commission (HLC)
Why Should I Get an Associate’s in Exercise Science and Kinesiology?
An Associate degree in Exercise Science and Kinesiology will give you a flexible foundation to either enter the field or to advance your education.
A two-year Associate’s program, will prepare you to work on the entry-level, in the fitness, health, and wellness professions. Careers can be found as a health coach, personal trainer, fitness center manager, trainer, recreation centers, or camp manager. You’ll also have the opportunity to teach physical education, aerobics, strength and conditioning, and more, by earning professional certificates. Many academic programs offer certification as part of the curriculum.
An Exercise Science Associate degree will also give you the foundation to continue your Exercise Science studies at a four-year university or college. Most community college classes will transfer and often will allow you to enter a university as a third-year student. A Bachelor’s degree is necessary if you’re interested in joining the healthcare profession as a physical therapist assistant, wellness director, or physiologist.
Community colleges provide you the general education credits that are usually required in the first two years of an undergraduate program and tuition is typically much lower than at a four-year institution.
What is Exercise Science and Kinesiology?
Simply put, Exercise Science is the study of human movement as it relates to fitness, health, and longevity. Kinesiology is also the study of movement and physiology and is critical in the recovery of physical abilities and wellness through exercise.
Earning an Associate’s degree in the field will allow you to pursue entry-level positions in fitness training, coaching, personal trainer, fitness consultant and others. While salaries are modest for entry-level positions, an Associate’s degree provides you a foundation to earn higher degrees and a higher salary.
Exercise Science will help you identify areas of physical activity (or inactivity) where patients or clients would benefit from specific solutions. Advanced Kinesiology studies in physiology, chemistry, biomechanics, biology, and other sciences will prepare you for various healthcare careers in physical therapy, as a physician assistant, exercise psychology, and more.
U.S. News and World Report published information on “What You Can Do With a Kinesiology Degree” which goes into more detail on the discipline.